Spaans

Dialecten

Hieronder volgt een overzicht van de Spaanse grammatica.

uitspraak alfabet - uitspraak - klemtoon
naamwoorden zelfstandige naamwoorden - bijvoeglijke naamwoorden - persoonlijke voornaamwoorden - aanwijzende voornaamwoorden - betrekkelijke voornaamwoorden - onbepaalde voornaamwoorden - bezittelijke voornaamwoorden
werkwoorden ser en estar - presente - wederkerende werkwoorden - stamklankverandering - spellingsverandering - werkwoorden als gustar - onregelmatige werkwoorden - perfecto - infinitivo - indefinido - imperfecto - gerundio - participio - futuro - imperativo
onveranderbare woorden voorzetsels - voegwoorden
zinnen ontkenning

Uitspraak

Naar bovenkant van pagina.

Het Spaans wordt over het algemeen snel en levendig gesproken in vergelijking met het Nederlands.

De uitspraak van het Spaans is af te leiden van de spelling van een woord. Er vallen over het algemeen geen klinkers of medeklinkers weg, zoals bijvoorbeeld wel gebeurt in het Frans. Hieronder worden alle letters en lettergroepen met een afwijkende uitspraak ten opzichte van het Nederlands gegeven:

letter

plaats

uitspraak

a overal [a] aa in kaas

b

begin van woord

[b] (b in beer)

 

overig

[β] de luie b

c

 

[k] (k in kaas)

 

voor e, i

[θ] (th in Engelse ‘think’)*

ch

[tʃ] = tsj

g

 

[g] g in Engelse ‘good’

 

voor e, i

[x] ch in acht

h

 

niet uitgesproken

i

 

[i] ie in niet

  voor klinker [j] j in ja

j

overal

[x] ch in acht

ll

overal

[ʎ]**

ñ

overal

[ɲ] nj in Spanje

qu

overal

[k] k in kaas

r

begin woord

[r] lange rollende r

 

overig

[ɾ] korte r

rr

 

[r] lange rollende r

u

meestal

[u] oe in hoed

  voor klinker [w]

 

qu-, gue-, gui-

niet uitgesproken

v

begin van woord

[b] (b in beer)

 

overig

[β] de luie b

w

begin van woord

[b] (b in beer)

 

overig

[β] de luie b

x   [ks]***
  begin van woord [s]

y

in woord

[ʝ] in mayo**

 

los

[i] (ie in niet)

z

overal

[θ] (th in Engelse think)*

* De c en z worden als een [s] uitgesproken in plaats van een [θ] in Latijns-Amerika en delen van Zuid-Spanje (Andalusië, Canarische eilanden).

**

*** De x in México, Texas, Oaxaca, en andere Mexicaanse woorden vervangt eigenlijk de Spaanse j, en wordt dus als zodanig uitgesproken.


Dialecten

Naar bovenkant van pagina.

Er zijn verschillende Spaanse dialecten, voornamelijk in te delen in twee groepen: Latijns-Amerikaans Spaans en Europees Spaans.

Latijns-Amerikaans Spaans (español americano)

  • Mexicaans-Spaans (español mexicano): Mexico, zuiden van VS.
  • Centraal-Amerikaans Spaans (español centroamericano): Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras en Nicaragua.
  • Caraïbisch-Spaans (español caribeño): Cuba, Puerto Rico, en Dominicaanse Republiek EN Panama, Venezuela, Caraïbisch Colombia en Caraïbisch Mexico, Golf kust Mexico.
  • Andes-Spaans (español andino): Colombia, Peru, Ecuador, West-Bolivia, Andes van Venezuela
  • Rioplatensisch-Spaans (español rioplatense): gebieden rond de Río de la Plata in Argentinië en Uruguay, Oost-Bolivia en Paraguay
  • Chileens-Spaans (español chileno): Chili, Cuyo provincie van Argentinië

Old World varieties are: español peninsular / de España, europeo, ibérico,

  • Northern Peninsular (Asturias, Castilla y León, Cantabria, Basque country, Navarre, Aragón, Rioja, Provinces of Guadalajara and Cuenca)
  • Central-Southern Peninsular (Madrid, Toledo, La Mancha)
  • Southern Peninsular (Andalusia, Extremadura, and Murcia)
  • Canarian (Canary Islands)

Meridionales: Extremeño, Murciano, Andaluz en Canario

 

Dialectos históricos - Astur-Leonés (bable) en Navarro-Aragonés (baturro)

Dialectos septentrionales

Mexicaans-Spaans

Mexicaans-Spaans (español mexicano) wordt gesproken in Mexico en het zuiden van de VS (Texas, Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming). Het wordt gekenmerkt door woorden opgenomen uit het Nahuatl, de taal van de Azteken en andere culturen die voor de Spanjaarden in het gebied leefden. Spaans rond de kustgebieden past meer bij het Caraïbisch-Spaans en Spaans dat gesproken wordt op het Yucatán schiereiland is verschillend van de rest, doordat het sterk beïnvloedt is door de Maya cultuur.

Het is uniek in het hebben van twee klanken: tz [ts] en tl [] , bovendien wordt de x uitgesproken als ʃ of [x].

Due to influence from indigenous languages, such as Nahuatl, the set of affricates in Mexican Spanish includes a voiceless alveolar affricate [t͡s] and a voiceless alveolar lateral affricate [t͡ɬ], represented by the respective digraphs ⟨tz⟩ and ⟨tl⟩,[8] as in the words tlapalería [t͡ɬapaleˈɾia] ('hardware store') and coatzacoalquense [koat͡sakoalˈkense] ('from [the city of] Coatzacoalcos'). Even words of Greek and Latin origin with ⟨tl⟩, such as Atlántico and atleta, are pronounced with the affricate: [aˈt͡ɬãn̪t̪iko̞][aˈt͡ɬe̞t̪a] (compare [aðˈlãn̪t̪iko̞][aðˈle̞t̪a] in Spain and other dialects in Hispanic America).

In addition to the usual voiceless fricatives of other American Spanish dialects (/f//s//x/), Mexican Spanish also has the palatal sibilant /ʃ/,[8] mostly in words from indigenous languages—especially place names. The /ʃ/, represented orthographically as ⟨x⟩, is commonly found in words of Nahuatl or Mayan origin, such as Xola [ˈʃola] (a station in the Mexico City Metro). The spelling ⟨x⟩ can additionally represent the phoneme /x/ (also mostly in place names), as in México itself (/ˈmexiko/); or /s/, as in the place name Xochimilco—as well as the /ks/ sequence (in words of Greco-Latin origin, such as anexar /anekˈsar/), which is common to all varieties of Spanish. In many Nahuatl words in which ⟨x⟩ originally represented [ʃ], the pronunciation has changed to [x] (or [h])—e.g. Jalapa/Xalapa[xaˈlapa].

All varieties of Mexican Spanish are characterized by yeísmo: the letters ⟨ll⟩ and ⟨y⟩ correspond to the same phoneme, /j/.[10][11][12] That phoneme, in most variants of Mexican Spanish, is pronounced as either a palatal fricative [ʝ] or an approximant [j] in most cases, although after a pause it is instead realized as an affricate [ɟʝ ~ dʒ].

A striking feature of Mexican Spanish, particularly that of central Mexico, is the high rate of reductionand even elision of unstressed vowels, as in [ˈtɾasts] (trastes, 'cooking utensils'). This process is most frequent when a vowel is in contact with the phoneme /s/, so that /s/+ vowel + /s/ is the construction when the vowel is most frequently affected.[13][14][15] It can be the case that the words pesospesas, and peces are pronounced the same [ˈpesəs]. The vowels are slightly less frequently reduced or eliminated in the constructions /t, p, k, d/ + vowel + /s/, so that the words pastaspastes, and pastosmay also be pronounced the same /ˈpasts/.

Mexican Spanish retains a number of words that are considered archaic in Spain.[citation needed]

Also, there are a number of words widely used in Mexico which have Nahuatl, Mayan or other native origins, in particular names for flora, fauna and toponyms. Some of these words are used in most, or all, Spanish-speaking countries, like chocolate and aguacate ("avocado"), and some are only used in Mexico. The latter include guajolote "turkey" < Nahuatl huaxōlōtl [waˈʃoːloːt͡ɬ] (although pavo is also used, as in other Spanish-speaking countries); papalote "kite" < Nahuatl pāpālōtl [paːˈpaːloːt͡ɬ]"butterfly"; and jitomate "tomato" < Nahuatl xītomatl [ʃiːˈtomat͡ɬ]. For a more complete list see List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin.

Other expressions that are unique to colloquial Mexican Spanish include:

  • agarrar: "take"
  • ahorita: "soon; in a moment". Literally "right now". E.g. Ahorita que acabe, "As soon as I finish (this)". Considered informal.
  • bronca: "fight" or "problem". Literally "aggressive woman or girl, or wild female animal". Commonly used among young people.
  • bronco: "wild, untame". E.g. leche bronca: "unpasteurized milk".
  • camión: "bus"
  • chavo (chava); chamaco (chamaca); chilpayate: "a child, teen, or youngster". Also huerco (huerca), morro (morra), and plebe are used in northern Mexico. All these terms except chilpayate are also found in their diminutives: chavitochamaquitohuerquitomorrito. Considered informal.
  • chequear/checar: "to check (verify)"
  • librería: "library"
  • chichi(s): "breast(s)". From Nahuatl chīchīhualli [tʃiːtʃiːwɑlːi].[citation needed] Considered informal.
  • chido: "cool, attractive, fun, etc."
  • chingadera: "trash; crap". Considered vulgar.
  • chingado: "damned". Considered vulgar.
  • chingar: "to screw/ruin/rob/steal/fuck/work/eat". Vulgar.
  • cholo: In northern Mexico, equivalent to the English term gangsta; in the rest of Mexico, equivalent to the Spanish term pandillero ("hooligan", "gang member"), which refers to young slum-dwellers living in conditions of extreme poverty, drug dependency, and malnutrition.
  • durazno: "peach"
  • En un momento: "Just a minute", "Hold on a second", etc. Literally "in a moment".
  • escuincle: "a bratty child" or "squirt". From Nahuatl itzcuīntli [it͡skʷiːnt͡ɬi], "dog".
  • Este...: a filler word, similar to American English "um". Literally, "this". Also used in other countries.
  • güero: "light-haired and/or light-skinned person".
  • güeywey or buey: "dude", "guy" (literally, "ox"). As an adjective, "dumb", "asinine", "moronic", etc. Not to be confused with "Huey" from the Aztec title "Huey Tlatoani", in which "Huey" is a term of reverence.
  • hablar con: "to talk with (on the telephone)". Used in place of the standard llamar.
  • macho: "manly". Applied to a woman (macha): "manly" or "skillful".
  • naco: "a low-class, boorish, foolish, ignorant and/or uneducated person". Pejorative.
  • Órale: (1) similar to English "Wow!" (2) "Okay". (3) Exclamation of surprised protest. Abbreviated ¡Ora! by low-class people in their uneducated variety. May be considered rude.
  • padre: used as an adjective to denote something "cool", attractive, good, fun, etc. E.g. Esta música está muy padre, "This music is very cool." Literally, "father".
  • pedo: "problem" or "fight". Literally "fart". Also, in a greeting, ¿Qué pedo, güey? ("What's up, dude?"). As an adjective, "drunk", e.g. estar pedo, "to be drunk". Also the noun peda: "a drunken gathering". All forms are considered vulgar for their connection to pedo, "fart".
  • pelo chino: "curly hair".[17] The word chino derives from the Spanish word cochino, "pig".[17] The phrase originally referenced the casta (racial type) known as chino, meaning a person of mixed indigenous and African ancestry whose hair was curly.[17] Sometimes erroneously thought to be derived from Spanish chino, "Chinese".[17]
  • pinche: "damned", "lousy", more akin to "freaking". E.g. Quita tu pinche cara de aquí. ("Take your lousy face away from here"). As a noun, literally, "kitchen assistant". Considered vulgar.
  • popote: "drinking straw". From Nahuatl popōtl [popoːt͡ɬ], the name of a plant from which brooms and drinking straws are made, or the straws themselves.[citation needed]
  • ¿Cómo la ves?: "What do you think about it?" Literally "How do you see it?"
  • ¡Híjole!: An exclamation, used variously to express surprise, frustration, etc. From hijo de... ("son of a..."). Also ¡Híjoles!.
  • ¿Mande?: "Beg your pardon?". From mandar, "to order", formal command form. ¿Cómo? (literally "How?"), as in other countries, is also in use. The use of ¿Qué? ("What?") on its own is sometimes considered impolite, unless accompanied by a verb: ¿Qué dijiste? ("What did you say?").
  • parquear: "to park"
  • ¡Puta madre!: "Oh shit!". Literally, "Motherfucker!". Considered vulgar.
  • ¿Qué onda?: "What's up?". Literally, "What's the vibe?".
  • rentar: "to rent"

Most of the words above are considered informal (e.g. chavo(a)padregüero, etc.), rude (güeynaco¿cómo (la) ves?, etc.) or vulgar (chingaderapinchepedo, etc.) and are limited to slang use among friends or in informal settings; foreigners need to exercise caution in their use. In 2009, at an audience for the signing of a Memorandum of Understanding between Mexico and the Netherlands, the then Crown Prince of the Netherlands, Willem-Alexander, made a statement to the audience with a word which, in Mexican Spanish, is considered very vulgar. Evidently oblivious to the word's different connotations in different countries, the prince's Argentine interpreter used the word chingada as the ending to the familiar Mexican proverb "Cámaron que se duerme se lo lleva la corriente" (A sleeping shrimp is carried away by the tide), without realizing the vulgarity associated with the word in Mexico. The prince, also unaware of the differences, proceeded to say the word, to the bemusement and offense of some of the attendees.[18]

Andes-Spaans

Andean Spanish is a dialect of Spanish spoken in the central Andes, from western Venezuela, southern Colombia, with influence as far south as northern Chile and Northwestern Argentina, passing through EcuadorPeru, and Bolivia. It is influenced principally by CastilianCanarian and Andalusian Spanish, which is favoured in the cities, but in rural areas and some cities, there is influence of QuechuaAymara, and other indigenous languages.

  • In Andean Spanish, the /s/ is never aspirated in the final position and so is pronounced [s], not [h], but it is sometimes pronounced apical, rather than laminal,[1] a trait characteristic of Northern Spain. The latter sound is transitional between [s] and [ʃ], unique in the Americas, and it is associated with a large number of northern Spanish settlers in Andean region.
  • As in every other American dialects, Andean Spanish has seseo (/θ/ is not distinguished from /s/). Thus, casa ("house") and caza ("hunt") are homophones. However, in Cusco Region, many speakers realize /s/ as [θ] in some words, particularly in once, doce, trece.[1] Seseo is common to all of America, the Canary Islands, and several areas in southern Spain.
  • Especially in the Ecuadorian variant, coda /s/ is often voiced to [z] before a vowel or before a voiced consonant (including sonorants), but the latter is also a feature of most other Spanish dialects. In the Peruvian variant, it is palatalized before /i/.
  • In Bolivia, Ecuador, and southern Peru, /ʎ/ and /ʝ/ do not merge (lack of yeísmo).
  • Often the vowels /e/ and /i/ or /o/ and /u/ are merged because of the influence of the trivocal system of Quechua and Aymara.
  • /r/ and /ɾ/ are assibilated to [] and [ɾ̞], respectively.
  • /x/ is velar [x] rather than glottal [h].
  • /f/ is realised as bilabial [ɸ], the same one that adds an epenthetic /w/ is often confused with /x/.[clarification needed]
  • Emphasis is given to the consonants but the vowels are weakened, especially for unstressed syllables (like in Mexico, but not as marked).
  • Stress is or tends to be penultimate.

Chileens-Spaans

Chilean Spanish (Spanishespañol chilenoespañol de Chile or castellano de Chile) is any of several varieties of Spanish spoken in most of Chile. Chilean Spanish dialects have distinctive pronunciation, grammar, vocabulary, and slang usage that differ from those of standard Spanish.[2]

There are a number of phonetic features common to most Chilean accents, but none of them is individually unique to Chilean Spanish.[7] Rather, it is the particular combination of features that sets Chilean Spanish apart from other regional Spanish dialects.[8] The features include the following:[9][10]

  • Yeísmo, the historical merger of the phoneme /ʎ/ (spelled ⟨ll⟩) with /ʝ/ (spelled ⟨y⟩). For speakers with yeísmo, the verbs cayó 's/he fell' and calló 's/he fell silent' are homophones, both pronounced [kaˈʝo]. (In dialects that lack yeísmo, maintaining the historical distinction, the two words are pronounced respectively [kaˈʝo] and [kaˈʎo].) Yeísmo characterizes the speech of most Spanish-speakers both in Spain and in the Americas. In Chile, there is a declining number of speakers who maintain the distinction, mainly in some Andean areas, south of Santiago.[3][11]
  • Like most other American dialects of Spanish, Chilean Spanish has seseo/θ/ is not distinguished from /s/. In much of the Andean region, the merged phoneme is pronounced as apicoalveolar [], a sound with a place of articulation intermediate between laminodental [s] and palatal [ʃ]. That trait, unique in the Americas, is associated with a large number of northern Spanish settlers in Andean Chile.
  • Syllable-final /s/ is often aspirated to [h] or lost entirely, another feature common to many varieties of Spanish in the Americas, as well as the Canary Islands and the southern half of Spain. Whether final /s/ aspirates or is elided depends on a number of social, regional, and phonological factors, but in general, aspiration is most frequent before a consonant. Complete elision is most commonly found word-finally but carries a sociolinguistic stigma.[12] Thus, los chilenos '(the) Chileans' can be [lɔh t͡ʃiˈleːnɔ].
  • The velar consonants /k//ɡ/, and /x/ are fronted or palatalized before front vowels. Thus, queso'cheese', guía 'guide', and jinete 'rider/horseman' are pronounced respectively [ˈceːso][ˈɟi.a], and [çiˈn̪eːt̪e]. Also, /x/, it is pronounced [h] or [x] in other phonological environments and so caja 'box' and rojo 'red' are pronounced [ˈkaxa] ~ [ˈkaha] and [ˈroxo] ~ [ˈroho] respectively.
  • Between vowels and word-finally, /d/ commonly elides or lenites, as is common throughout the Spanish-speaking world); contado 'told' and ciudad 'city' are [kon̪ˈt̪aːo] and [sjuˈð̞aː] respectively. Elision is less common in formal or upper-class speech.
  • The voiceless postalveolar affricate /t͡ʃ/ is pronounced as a fricative [ʃ] by many lower-class speakers and so Chile and leche (milk) are pronounced [ˈʃiːle] and [ˈleʃe], respectively). That pronunciation is greatly stigmatized. Other variants are more fronted and include the alveolaraffricate [t͡s] or an even more fronted dental affricate [t̪͡s̪], mostly in the upper class. Thus, Chileand leche are pronounced [ˈt͡siːle] or [ˈlet͡se].
  • Unstressed word-final vowels are often devoiced.[13]